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Thanks to the hard work of Willie Prejean for proving this information

Ingredient functions, pie doughs and pie fillings, plus mixing and make-up demonstrations.

INTRODUCTION

The average American has a wide choice of desserts, with pies undoubtedly being the number one choice. To qualify as the true favorite of American desserts, pie must be be of top quality. In order to be able to produce quality pies, it is essential tha the baker know what each ingredient does, why they are used and how they are used.  

 CLASSIFICATION OF PIES
Pies are generally classified into three main classifications as follows: Double Crust Pies such as Fruit Filled Pies, Baked Custard Pies, and Pre-Baked Shell Type Pies.

PIE CRUSTS:
Pie crusts are divided into three main classifications such as: 

  • LONG FLAKE:
    To produce a long flake, the flour and shortening are mixed only until the fat is about the size of walnuts.
  • SHORT FLAKE:
    To produce a short flake, the flour and shortening are mixed until the fat is the size of peas.
  • MEALY TENDER CRUST:
    To produce a mealy tender crust, the flour and fat are mixed until there are very few fat particles. 

Slight variations or combinations of the three mixing methods listed above are used by some bakers. Also, the dough may be mixed by hand or by using the Pastry Blender Attachment when using a mixing machine. If a Pastry Blender Attachment is not available the Mixing Paddle can be used. When using the mixing machine, extra care must be used to prevent overmixing the flour and fat together and also after the water has been added. 

PIE DOUGH INGREDIENTS: 

  • FLOUR:
    Flour is the main structure builder in pie doughs. Pastry flour generally produces superior pie doughs, however, a combination of 60 percent bread flour and 40 percIent cake flour can produce quality pies if the dough is mixed properly. If all bread flour is used, the dough will shrink excessively when baked and the crust will be tough.
    On the other hand, if all cake flour is used, the amount of shortening used must be reduced otherwise, the dough will be very difficult to handle during make-up.
  • SHORTENING:
    Shortening is responsible for flakiness, tenderness, taste, palatability and keeping quality of the crust. Shortening may be animal, vegetable or a blend of animal and vegetable. Butter, margarine, and lard produced from hog fat, are highly flavored. Many years ago, lard was the favorite of bakers. Today, bakers use a combination of lard and vegetable shortening. Too high a percentage of shortening in the formula will result in excessive tenderness of the crust and too low a percentage will produce a tough crust.
  • SALT:
    Salt enhances the flavor of other ingredients. Salt also has a strengthening effect upon the flour proteins which is desirable.
  • COLORING AGENTS:
    Coloring agents are generally used to to assist in developing the golden brown crust color during baking. For example when sugars and milk are used in pie dough, they carmelize during baking. The disadvantage of using these ingredients is that they tend to destroy the flake and increase moisture absorption in the crust after baking. Some bakers use a pie wash such as a mixture of equal parts of water and eggs which has been beaten slightly with a wire whip. Milk and eggs or melted butter can also be used. The wash is painted on or sprayed on the top of the pie just before loading them into the oven. The wash containing eggs produce a shiny glazed surface to the crust, but they tend to make the crust soggy. Butter produces a more tender crust, but the crust will not have a glaze, and will tend to be dull in color.
  • WATER:
    Water dissolves the salt, developes the flour proteins, and controls the consistency and temperature of the dough. Excessive water in the dough is undersible because it takes longer to bake the crust, and toughens the crust.
  • NOTE: WATER USED IN THE DOUGH SHOULD BE ICE COLD TO PREVENT SOFTENING THE FAT IN THE DOUGH. IF TIME PERMITS, THE MIXED DOUGH SHOULD BE CHILLED IN THE REFRIGERATOR SLIGHTLY. THIS WILL ASSIST IN KEEPING THE DOUGH FROM BEING STICKY DURING MAKE-UP. 

PIE FILLING INGREDIENTS:

Although an attractive, tender, flaky, golden brown crust with good flavor, taste and aroma is necessary, a quality, attractive and tasty filling will in the end determine the final quality of the pie.

NOTE:

Some well known bakery ingredient manufacturers make available to the baker high quality prepared fruit pie fillings and cream pie fillings. Bakers use these prepared mixes to save time and labor costs. For those bakers who prefer to prepare their own pie dough and pie filling formulas, the following information can be used as a guide.  

PIE DOUGH BAKER’S PERCENTAGE RANGE SHOWING MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM AMOUNTS OF EACH INGREDIENT THAT SHOULD BE USED IN THE FORMULA 

Ingredients Minimum Maximum
Flour

100

100

Shortening

50

75

Salt

3

4

Sugar

0

10

Milk, Dry Nonfat

0

5

Ice Water

20

50

PIE DOUGH TRUE PERCENTAGE RANGE SHOWING MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM AMOUNTS OF EACH INGREDIENT THAT SHOULD BE USED IN THE FORMULA

Ingredients Minimum Maximum
Flour

44

50

Shortening

24

32

Salt

0.5

1.0

Sugar

0

3

Milk, Dry Nonfat

0

2

Ice Water

15

24

FRUIT PIE FILLING TRUE PERCENTAGE RANGE SHOWING MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM AMOUNTS OF EACH INGREDIENT THAT SHOULD BE USED IN THE FORMULA 

Ingredients Minimum Maximum
Sugar

15

25

Salt

0

0.25

Glucose Syrup

0

20

Cornstarch

3

4

Fruit

35

50

Juice or Water

30

45

Butter

0

1.5

CREAM PIE FILLING TRUE PERCENTAGE RANGE SHOWING MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM AMOUNTS OF EACH INGREDIENT THAT SHOULD BE USED IN THE FORMULA 

Ingredients Minimum Maximum
Sugar

15

25

Salt

0.125

0.25

Eggs or Yolk

10

20

Milk, Nonfat Dry

0

10

Chocolate

5

7

Cocoa

3

4

Cornstarch

4

5

Fruit Juice & Rind

4.5

6.5

Butter

0

3

CREAM TYPE PIES

Cream for Cream Type Pies are generally poured into pre-baked pie shells and topped with Meringue. There are several methods of prepaing meringue, however the use of a cooked type meringue is recommended, because the meringue is more stable and will not break down or weep during storage or when chilled in the refrigerator. The meringue is made using a commercially prepared special stabalizer or with a cooked cornstarch mixture. 

THE FORMULA FOR THE COOKED MERINGUE INCLUDING INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO PREPARE IT IS INCLUDED LATER ON IN THIS PAGE 

CUSTARD PIE FILLING TRUE PERCENTAGE RANGE SHOWING MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM AMOUNTS OF EACH INGREDIENT THAT SHOULD BE USED IN THE FORMULA 

Ingredients Minimum Maximum
Sugar

16

20

Salt

0.125

0.25

Eggs or Yolk

10

20

Milk, Nonfat Dry

5

8

Spices

0.125

7

Cocoa

0.125

0.5

Cornstarch

0

1.5

Pumpkin

28

36

Butter

0

1.5

CORNSTARCHES

THERE ARE SEVERAL TYPES OF STARCHES AVAILABLE TO THE PIE BAKER FOR THICKENING THE FRUIT JUICES AND OR MILK AND WATER.

  • PURE FOOD POWDERED STARCH:
    A pure refined corn starch prepared from ordinary field corn. This type of starch is not as stable as the Waxy Maise Starch and will break down and become watery after long storage or when used to thicken fruit juices containing a high acid content such as cherry or pineapple juices. It contains amylase and amylopectin. It can be modified to increase it’s clarity and stability.
  • WAXY STARCH:
    This type of starch is refined and modified. It is prepared from waxy maise. This is an exceptionally clear, gel-producing starch with a short tender body and extreme stability. Waxy starches generally swell faster than other starches, but they also become thinner during cooking. The cooked filling will not get thicker when the pie cools as does that made with regular starch.
  • PRE-GELATINIZED STARCH (COLD WATER STARCH):
    This starch is generally know as INSTANT STARCH. It does not require cooking. The juice is drained from the fruit. If insufficient juices are present in the fruit, water can be added to make up the shortage. All the dry ingredients (starch, sugar,salt, spiced, etc.) of the filling are blended together thoroughly in a dry mixing bowl. Add the liquids (juices and water when used) gradually to the dry ingredients and mix until smooth. Carefully fold drained fruit into thickened mixture. Chill filling in refrigerator until ready to be used.

Regardless of the type of starch used, the prepared filling should be chilled in the refrigerator before being used to reduce the possibility of the filling boiling out of the pie during baking. Generally if the oven is heated to about 450 degrees F before the pie is loaded into the oven, the crust will be fully baked before the filling gets hot enough to come to a boil and spill out of the pie.

  • TAPAIOCA STARCH:
    This type of starch is also used in pie fillings by some bakers.

One of the characteristics of all starches is their ability to swell when cooked in water or fruit juices. They become gelatinized and in turn cause the mixture to be thickend.

FRUIT USED IN PIES: THE FOLLOWING TYPES OF FRUITS WILL PRODUCE QUALITY PIES IF PROCESSED PROPERLY: 

  • FRESH FRUIT:
    Wash, drain and mix into a slurry of cooked starch, sugar, salt, drained juice and water plus any spices or other ingredients such as lemon juice, and butter that may used. Refrigerate until ready to use.
  • FROZEN FRUIT:
    Thaw, drain the juice, cook a slurry of drained juice and water, starch, sugar and salt, etc. and mix the fruit into the slurry. NOTE: If sugar has been added to the fruit, this must be taken into consideration. Excess sugar in the recipe will interfere with the ability of the starch to form a gel.
  • CANNED FRUIT:
    Drain the juice, if insufficient juice is present, add water to make up the shortage. Cook a slurry of drained juice, water when added, starch, sugar, salt and other ingredients when used. Then mix the fruit into the cooked mixture.
  • DEHYDRATED AND DRIED FRUITS:
    Reconstitute, cook into a slurry as for other types of fruits and mix the fruit into the cooked mixture. Today, dried fruits are not shriviled as they once were. They should be considered fresh fruit from which water has been removed. Years ago when dried fruits were used, it was necessary to soak them in water for 8 hours or overnight. Today that is no longer necessary. Quick cooking is the secret to producing quality pies from dried fruits without ending up with broken, mashed, or dark or yellow unpleasant color.

FOLLOWING AREA FEW FRUIT PIE FILLING FORMULAS USING REGULAR STARCHES AND FILLINGS USING COLD WATER STARCHES (INSTANT STARCHES) APPLE PE FILLING USING NO. 10 CAN CANNED APPLES AND COOKING WITH REGULAR STARCH

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
JUICE OR WATER

2

0

PROCEDURE: BRING WATER TO BOIL 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
STARCH

0

3-1/2

WATER

0

6

PROCEDURE: SUSPEND STARCH IN WATER. ADD TO BOILING WATER STIRRING CONSTANTLY. COOK UNTIL THICK AND CLEAR 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
SUGAR

0

12

SUGAR, BROWN

0

12

SALT

0

0-1/4TH

CINNAMON

0

0-1/4TH

BUTTER

0

4

LEMON JUICE

0

0-1/2

PROCEDURE: MIX DRY INGREDIENTS TOGETHER, ADD TO COOKED SLURRY. STIR UNTIL SUGAR AND SALT ARE DISSOLVED AND THE BUTTER IS MELTED.
NOTE: BUTTER IS OPTIONAL. ADD LEMON JUICEAND THEN POUR COOKED SLURRY OVER FRUIT AND BLEND CAREFULLY. CHILL FILLING IN REFRIGERATOR
UNTIL READY TO BE USED.

APPLE PIE FILLING USING NO.10 CANNED APPLES AND USING COLD WATER STARCH (INSTANT STARCH)

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
SUGAR

0

12

SUGAR, BROWN

0

12

SALT

0

0-1/4TH

CINNAMON

0

0-1/4TH

 

 

 

 
PROCEDURE: BLENDALL DRY INGREDIENTS THOROUGHLY IN A DRY BOWL.

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
JUICE OR WATER

2

0

BUTTER

0

4

LEMON JUICE

0

0-1/2

 

 

 

PROCEDURE: GRADUALLY ADD WATER TO THE DRY MIXTURE ABOVE STIRRING CONSTANTLY UNTIL SMOOTH. ADD LEMON JUICE AND STIR INTO THE MIXTURE. POUR THICKENED MIXTURE OVER APPLES AND FOLD IN GENTLY. CHILL FILLING UNTIL READY TO BE USED. 

CHERRY PIE FILLING USING NO. 10 CAN CANNED CHERRIES AND COOKING WITH REGULAR STARCH

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
JUICE

2

0

 


PROCEDURE:
BRING JUICE TO BIOL

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
STARCH

0

4-1/2

WATER

0

6

PROCEDURE: SUSPEND STARCH IN WATER. ADD TO BOILING WATER STIRRING CONSTANTLY. COOK UNTIL THICK AND ORIGINAL COLOR IS OBTAINED. SHUT OFF HEAT. 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
SUGAR

2

8

SALT

0

0-1/4TH

BUTTER

0

4

LEMON JUICE

0

0-1/2

PROCEDURE: MIX DRY INGREDIENTS TOGETHER, ADD TO COOKED SLURRY. STIR UNTIL SUGAR AND SALT ARE DISSOLVEDAND THE BUTTER IS MELTED.
NOTE: BUTTER AND LEMON JUICE ARE OPTIONAL. ADD LEMON JUICE AND THEN POUR COOKED SLURRY OVER FRUITAND BLEND CAREFULLY. CHILL IN REFRIGERATOR UNTIL READY TO BE USED.

CHERRY PIE FILLING USING NO.10 CANNED CHERRIES AND USING COLD WATER STARCH (INSTANT STARCH) 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
SUGAR

2

8

SALT

0

0-1/4TH

INSTANT STARCH

0

4-1/2

PROCEDURE: BLEND ALL DRY INGREDIENTS THOROUGHLY IN A DRY BOWL. 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
JUICE

2

0

BUTTER

0

4

LEMON JUICE

0

0-1/2

PROCEDURE: GRADUALLY ADD JUICE TO THE DRY MIXTURE ABOVE STIRRING CONSTANTLY UNTIL SMOOTH. ADD LEMON JUICE AND STIR INTO THE MIXTURE. LEMON JUICE AND BUTTER ARE OPTIONAL. POUR THICKENED MIXTURE OVER CHERRIES AND FOLD IN GENTLY. CHILL FILLING UNTIL READY TO BE USED.

PIE DOUGH FORMULA

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
PASTRY FLOUR

5

5

SALT

0

3

SUGAR

0

3-1/2

DRY MILK

0

1

SHORTENING

3

4

PROCEDURE: SIFT ALL DRY INGREDIENTS TOGETHER. BLEND SHORTENINGAND DRY INGREDIENTS TO ABOUT THE SIZE OF PEAS WITH THE PASTRY BLENDER ATTACHMENT. THIS WILL PRODUCE A SHORT FLAKE PIE CRUST. IF A LONG FLAKE IS DESIRED, BLEND THE SHORTENING AND DRY INGREDIENTS TO ABOUT THE SIZE OF WALNUTS. TO PRODUCE A MEALY PIE CRUST, BLEND THE SHORTENING AND DRY INGREDIENTS UNTIL VERY FEW LUMPS REMAIN. 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
ICE WATER

2

0

 PROCEDURE: DEMONSTRATING MIXING PIE DOUGH USING THE PASTRY BLENDER ATTACHMENT 

Mixing pie dough by machine using the Pastry Blender Attachment. If PASTRY BLENDER ATTACHMENT is not available, use the MIXING PADDLE ATTACHMENT, but be very careful not to overblend the dry ingredients and the shortening. Also don’t overmix the dough after the water has been added. The dough can also be mixed by hand. 

  • Cutting pie dough mass with hand scraper prior to forming dough into a cylinder.
  • Forming dough into a cylinder prior to scaling dough into individual size pieces.
  • Hand scaling dough pieces for bottom and top crusts.

NOTE: In large bakeries scaling of dough pieces is accomplished automatically using special machines 

  • Hand rolling pie dough using small rolling pin.
  • Machine rolling pie dough pieces.

NOTE: Some bakeries mass produce pies using automatic pie making machines where the dough is never touched by human hands. There are also bakeries that have semi-automatic pie making machines where some procedures require that the baker do some of the work. 

  • After the bottom crust has been placed in the pie pan, the edges of the pie dough are painted with egg wash to assist the top crust to seal to the bottom crust.
  • Hand filling pie shell with prepared and chilled cherry pie filling. In large pie making operations this procedure is accomplished automatically by machine.
  • Trimming the excess dough from the pie after the top crust has been docked to let steam out of the pie and placed on top of the pie. If the top is not docked, the steam created during baking will force the top crust to break away from the bottom crust.
  • The pie making machine shown is capable of producing 50 or more fruit pies per minute automatically. The machine is made by the Colborne Manufacturing Co. There are other manufacturers of automatic pie making machines.
  • Removing excess dough for making custard pies such as pecan and pumpkin pies, etc. 

PECAN PIE FORMULA 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Sugar, granulated

1

0

Cake Flour

1

0

SALT

0

0-1/2

Nutmeg

0

0-1/2

Eggs

6

8

Karo syrup

10

0

PROCEDURE: Place all above ingredients into mixing bowl and beat in low speed with wire whip until well mixed. 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Water

2

0

Vanilla

0

0-1/2

PROCEDURE: Add water and vanilla to above mixture and continue beating in slow speed for about 2 minutes. or until well mixed. Place 0-1/2 Cup macaroon cocoanut into bottom of unbaked pie shell (OPTIONAL). Also Add 1 to 1-1/2 cups of fresh pecans to the unbaked pie shell. Place unbaked pie shells containing cocoanut and pecan in 350 degree to 400 degree F. oven. Fill unbaked pie shell containing cocanut and pecan with prepared pecan pie filling. Bake about 30 minutes or until filling has set.

PUMPKIN PIE FORMULA 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Sugar, brown

3

0

Salt

0

0-1/4th

Cinnamon

0

0-1/4th

Nutmeg

0

0-1/4th

Ginger

0

0-1/4th

Milk, dry

0

8

PROCEDURE: Place all above dry ingredients into mixing bowl and mix together.

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Eggs, slightly beaten

1

12

PROCEDURE: Add slightly beaten eggs to above dry ingredients and mix in. 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Water

4

0

PROCEDURE: Add water to above mixture and mix in 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Pumpkin

5

0

PROCEDURE: Add pumpkin to above mixture and mix thoroughly. Place unbaked pie shells in 350 degree to 400 degrees F. oven. Fill unbaked pie shells with pumpkin pie filling. Bake about 30 minutes or until filling has set. 

  • Filling pecan pies or pumpkin pies after the unbaked shells have been loaded into the oven.
  • Docking pie dough for pre-baked pie shell such as for chocolate cream pies, lemon chiffon pies, coconut cream pies, etc.
  • Trimming excess dough from pie dough that has been docked for pre-baked pie shell. Purpose of docking the dough is to prevent the crust from raising away from the pie plate and to prevent large bubbles from forming.

FOLLOWING IS A FORMULA FOR FRESH LEMON CHIFFON PIE.

NOTE: After the meringue has been folded into the hot fresh lemon filling, and the pre-baked pie shell filled, the pie can be finished off by crumbling some pre-baked pie crust into a sifter and forcing it through the sifter and sifted on top of the pie. The top of the pie can be garnished by placing a MARASCHINO CHERRY in the center of the pie. If desired, rather than adding pie crumbs on top of the pie, meringue can be applied and browned off in the oven.

LEMON CHIFFON PIE FILLING 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
WATER

15

0

PROCEDURE: Bring water to boil

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
CORNSTARCH

2

2

WATER

3

0

PROCEDURE: Suspend starch in water and add to boiling water stirring constantly and cook until mixture is thick and clear. 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
SUGAR

9

0

SALT

0

0-3/4th

BUTTER

0

12

PROCEDURE: Add to cooked mixture and stir until sugar and salt are dissolved and the butter is melted. 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
EGGYOLKS

3

0

PROCEDURE: Beat egg yolks slightly. Pour 1/4th of the cooked mixture over slightly beaten egg yolks and mix thoroughly with hand wire whip. Pour the egg mixture back into the steam kettle containing 3/4th of the cooked mixture stirring constantly and bring to a boil again. Cut off heat.WASH 30 LEMONS, and grate the rind from the lemons. Squeeze the juice from the lemons and add the grated rind to the juice. Add juice and rind to the cooked mixture. DO NOT HEAT AFTER JUICE HAS BEEN ADDED OR THE ACID IN THE JUICE WILL BREAK DOWN THE STARCH.

NOTE: THE MERINGUE FOR THE CHIFFON PIES ( BELOW ) SHOULD BE PREPARED AT THE SAME TIME THAT THE FILLING IS BEING COOKED. THE MERINGUE SHOULD BE FOLDED GENTLY INTO THE COOKED MIXTURE WHILE THE FILLING IS STILL HOT. POUR THE CHIFFON FILLING IN PRE-BAKED PIE SHELLS WHILE FILLING IS STILL HOT.

FORMULA AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARING COOKED MERINGUE 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
WATER

1

8

PROCEDURE: BRING WATER TO BOIL 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Starch

0

3

Water

0

6

PROCEDURE: Suspend starch in water, add to boiling water and cook until thick and clear 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Sugar

2

10

PROCEDURE: Add sugar to cooked mixture and bring to a boil again. Remove from heat 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Egg Whites

1

12

Salt

0

0-1/4th

PROCEDURE: Add salt to egg whites. Beat eggs in medium speed until a peak is formed on the finger when it is dipped into the whites and withdrawn. Pour hot cooked mixture over beaten eggs in slow stream while continuing beating until the mixture forms a peak when a finger is dipped into the beaten mixture and withdrawn. 

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Vanilla

0

0-1/4th

PROCEDURE: Add vanilla to meringue and stir in. Apply on top of Cream Pie or chiffon pie while meringue is still warm. Bake at 375 Degrees F. until golden brown.
NOTE: THIS MERINGUE WILL NOT BREAK DOWN AND BECOME WATERY. 

  • Filling pre-baked pie shell with cream or chiffon pie filling directly from the steam kettle.
  • Spreading meringue on top of cream pie or chiffon pie using spatula.
  • Three types of pies, pre-baked pie shell filled with Cream Filling or Chiffon Filling and topped with meringue, Double Crust Cherry Fruit Pie, and One Crust Custard Pie (Pumpkin Pie).
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 FRENCH PASTRY is a specialty pastry product that tests the ability of the pastry baker. On the other hand, cream puffs and Eclairs are delicious desserts which are not difficult to make if directions are followed carefully.

FRENCH PASTRYis made from a vert rich dough containing a large amount of butter or maragarine sometimes combined with a special puff pastry shortening. A cream puff is a round hollow shell made from a paste consisting of water, shortening, butter or maragarine, salt, flour and eggs. At the end of the recipes, step by step demonstrations will be given on producing these specialty pastries.

FRENCH PASTRY DOUGH RECIPE:

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Flour, Bread

4

0

salt

0

1

Puff Pastry Shortening

4

0

Water, Ice-cold

2

4

MIXING METHOD ONE: Add all the ingredients of the recipe except the (Puff Pastry Shortening) in the mixing bowl. Mix the dough until the gluten is fully developed using the Dough Hook. Place the mixed dough on work bench which has been dusted with flour. Shape the dough into an oblong shape about 12 inches wide and 20 inches long. Spot the Puff Paste Shortening on two thirds of the dough as is demonstrated in PART SEVEN – DEMONSTRATION DANISH PASTRY.

Fold and roll the dough just as you would a Danish Pastry Dough being careful not to break through the dough by using excessive pressure on the rolling pin. Refrigerate for about 30 minutes between rolls to Let the dough relax. Cover the rolled dough with a damp cloth to keep a crust from forming. Repeat the rolling process 3 times. After the final roll, and after the dough has been refrigerated for an additional 30 minutes or overnight, it is ready to be made up into a variety of French Pastries, some of which are demonstrated below.

MIXING METHOD TWO: Place the flour, the Puff Pastry Shortening and salt into the mixing bowl. Work the fat into the dough either by hand or with the mixing paddle just as you would for mixing a pie dough. Mix only long enough so that the flour is only partially covered with fat leaving lumps of fat about the size of marbles. Add water to the partially coated flour and mix only long enough to form a dough. ( Do not overmix ). Place dough on a flour coated work bench. Place the mixed dough on work bench which has been dusted with flour. Shape the dough into an oblong shape about 12 inches wide and 20 inches long and roll it into an oblong shape about 1/2 inch thick, being careful not to break through the dough by using excessive pressure on the rolling pin. Lap dough to form three folds. Let dough relax for about 30 minutes, covering it with a damp cloth to keep a crust from forming.

Repeat this step three or four times, brushing flour off dough each time, and being careful not to damage the dough with too much pressure on the rolling pin. Refrigerate for about 30 minutes or overnigh. Make-up the various items such as Cream Horns and Patty Shells demonstrated below. Many other varieties such as Palm Leaves can also be made.

NOTE: Cream horns can be filled with a marshmallow type meringue or any type of filling desired. Patty shells can be filled with a Shrimp Newburg type filling, Chicken a-la King or any other type filling.

MAKING CREAM HORNS FROM FRENCH PASTRY

  • ROLL THE FINISHED FRENCH PASTRY DOUGH ABOUT 12 INCHES WIDE AND 1/8TH INCH THICK. CUT INTO STRIPS ABOUT ONE INCH WIDE. • WASH DOUGH STRIPS WITH LIGHT COATING OF WATER OR EGG WASH.
  • ROLL STRIP ONTO METAL OR PAPER CREAM HORNS STARTING AT SMALL END OF HORN. • COMPLETE ROLL BY OVERLAPPING STRIPS WHILE ROLLING ON CREAM HORN. MAKING PATTY SHELLS 
  • CUTTING THE DOUGH WHICH HAS BEEN ROLLED TO AN EVEN THICKNESS OF ABOUT 1/4TH TO 1/2 INCH THICK AND 15 INCHES WIDE WITH A SHARP CUTTER. 
  • USING SMALL SHARP CUTTER, MAKE SHELL BY CUTTING OUT CENTER TO FORM RING.
  • COMBINE CUT PORTIONS ( SCRAP DOUGH ) AND PRESS TOGETHER. ROLL THE SCRAP DOUGH ABOUT 1/8TH INCH THICK. DOCK ROLLED DOUGH FOR SHELL BOTTOM.
  • CUT DOCKED DOUGH WITH SAME CUTTER USED TO CUT RINGS.
  • AFTER TRIMMINGS ARE REMOVED, WASH THE DOCKED BOTTOMS A FEW AT A TIME WITH A LIGHT COATING OFWATER OR EGG WASH SO THE RINGS WILL STICK TO THE BOTTOMS.
  • PLACE RINGS ON BOTTOM PIECES TAKING CARE TO MATCH EDGES EVENLY

1. Baked cream horns
2. Baked patty shells

CREAM PUFF AND ECLAIR RECIPE:

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Water

5

4

Butter or Margarine

2

0

Combine water and fat together and bring to rolling boil making sure the fat has melted completely.

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Flour, Bread

3

0

 

Add flour to boiling mixture stirring constantly until cooked into a thick paste. Remove from heat.

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
eggs, whole

5

4

salt

0

1

Place cooked mixture into mixing bowl and mix a few turns with the mixing paddle to cool the mixture slightly. Add the salt to the eggs. Add eggs and salt mixture slowly while mixing and mix to a smooth batter.

NOTE: The amount of eggs varies so it may be necessary hold back on a small amount of eggs or the eggs may have to be increased slightly to obtain a smooth batter. Drop on lightly greased pans which have been dusted with flour. Bake at 400 degrees F. for about 30 minutes. Reduce heat to 300 degrees F. to dry out the inside of the Puffs and Eclairs to keep them from falling. When Bread Flour is used in the recipe as is the case with this recipe, the top of the baked product will crack somewhat. If a smooth top and a more tender product is desired, then Cake Flour can be used.

CREAM FILLING FOR CREAM PUFFS AND ECLAIRS:

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
water

1

8

sugar

1

8

Bring water and sugar to a boil.

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
water

1

8

sugar

1

8

Suspend starch in water and add to boiling mixture while stirring vigorously with hand whip. Cook until thick and clear. Remove from heat.

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Sugar granulated

0

12

salt

0

1/4th

milk, nonfat dry

0

6-1/2

Butter or margarine

0

4

Add sugar, salt,dry milk and butter or margarine to cooked mixture and stir until dry ingredients are dissolved and butter or margarine is melted.

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Eggs

1

4

 

Beat the eggs slightly with a hand whip. Pour 1/4th of cooked mixture over eggs and stir vigorously. NOTE: Reason for pouring part of the egg over eggs is to prevent the eggs from coagulating too soon which would result in a lumpy mixture.

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Vanilla

0

1/2

salt

0

1/4th

Add vanilla to cooked mixture and stir. At this point if a shiffon type cream is desired, a small amount of meringue can be folded into the cooked mixture while still hot. Refrigerate until ready to be used.

MAKING CREAM PUFFS AND ECLAIRS:

  • PANNING CREAM PUFF BATTER BY HAND
  • PANNING ECLAIR BATTER USING PASTRY BAG
  •  FILLING CREAM PUFFS AND ECLAIRS WITH MACHINE

 1. FILLED CREAM PUFFS TOPPED WITH CHOCOLATE ICING AND POWDERED SUGAR
2. FILLED ECLAIRS TOPPED WITH CHOCOLATE ICING AND POWDERED SUGAR

 This completes part eight on French Pastries and Cream Puffs-Eclairs. Thanks again to Willie Prejean for proving all the information on this blog.

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Baking and Baking Science

For this time around, we will include Part Six and Part Seven as a PDF document which you can view or download and save 

PART SIX – WILLIE PREJEAN DEMONSTRATING MAKE – UP OF PASTRIES

Download or view Part Six

PART SEVEN – WILLIE PREJEAN DEMONSTRATING MAKE – UP OF DANISH ROLLS AND COFFEE CAKE

Download or view Part Seven

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BAKING AND BAKING SCIENCE

PART FIVE – Sweet Dough, Danish Pastries, Coffe Cake Filling and Struesel Topping

Introduction:

The basic sweet dough is used to produce a wide range of sweet rolls, danish rolls and coffee cakes. To produce a more tender and flaky danish roll and coffee cake, the recipe is generally modified by adding additional sugar, shorteninig, eggs and yeast — butter or margarine is rolled into the danish dough. Many types of fillings and toppings are used and different flavored icings are applied to the baked pastries.  

Basic Sweet Dough Formula:

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Sugar, granulated

0

11

salt

0

1-3/4th

Mace or Nutmeg

0

0-1/4th

Shortening

0

11

Eggs, whole

0

15

Water *, variable

1

6

Lemon extract

0

0-1/4th

Yellow color

0

few drops

*Temper water so dough will come out of the mixer at 80 degrees F. Mix the above ingredients well. 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Water, 110 degrees F.

0

14

Yeast, dry

0

3-1/4th

 

 

 Add dry yeast to the warm water and mix together well. Let set about 5 minutes. After the water and yeast have set for about 5 minutes, mix them well again and add to the above ingredients. 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Flour, bread

5

0

Milk, dry non fat

0

3

 Add dry milk on top of flour to keep from forming lumps, then add to above and mix using the dough hook until gluten is properly developed. The dough will clean sides of the bowl and should be soft and slightlt sticky. The dough should come out of the mixer at 80 degrees F. and fermented for about 1-1/2 hours before make-up.

Note:
TO COMPLETE THE REMAINDER OF THIS PART, WILLIE PREJEAN WILL DEMONSTRATE HOW TO TELL WHEN THE GLUTEN HAS BEEN FULLY DEVELOPED DURING THE MIXING PHASE; WHEN THE DOUGH IS READY TO BE PUNCHED DURING THE FERMENTATION PHASE; HE WILL ALSO PUNCH AND FOLD THE DOUGH. IN PART SIX HE WILL DEMONSTRATE HOW TO MAKE A VARIETY OF SWEET ROLLS AFTER THE DOUGH HAS BEEN ALLOWED TO RISE AGAIN AFTER THE PUNCH.


Stretching the dough to determine if the gluten has been fully developed

 
Testing to determine if the dough is ready to be punched

 
Dough receeds slightly indicating it is ready to be punched

 
Folding the dough after it has been punched

 MAKE-UP OF SWEET ROLLS

 To make 54 sweet rolls (1 sheet pan) divide the dough into 5 pounds 8 ounce pieces. Form into oblong shape and allow to rest on work bench or in sheet pans which have been dusted with flour for 15 to 20 minutes to relax so the dough will roll out more easily.

With rolling pin, roll dough about 12 inches wide and 5 feet long. Brush sheeted dough with melted butter or margarine leaving about one inch at bottom without fat. Brush egg wash on this area so the dough will seal when rolled up into cylinder. Sprinkle raisins, chopped nuts, etc. on buttered portion.

Next sprinkle a prepared cinnamon sugar. Curl into round cylinder. Cut into cinnamon, butterfly rolls, etc. weighing about 2 ounces. Place made up rolls on greased pan, proof in moist, warm place until double in size. Bake in 350 t0 375 degree F. oven until golden brown. 

Note: To check if thoroughly baked, check bottom of roll. When brown on bottom, the rolls should be baked. Ice with sweet roll icing while still hot to produce a glazed top.

To make coffee cakes, scale dough pieces about 8 ounce or 12 ounce pieces. Shape into oblong loaves. Allow to rest for 15 to 20 minutes. Roll dough with rolling pin about 6 inches wide and 8 inches long. Fill with any filling available such as pie filling, buttercream icing with chopped nuts, cinnamon sugar, and streusel sprinkled on top, raisins, coconut, etc. When using pie filling or jam as the spread, sprinkle cake crumbs or streusel on top to absorb the moisture. 

Curl and shape as as you would when making cinnamon rolls. Various cuts can be made on top or the cylinder can be split in the center and formed into a twist. Also the coffee cake can be shaped in the form of a ring, heart, or fan. The shapes into which they can be made will be limited only by your imagination. Place on greased sheet pan about 4 inches apart to allow for expansion. Wash top of coffee cake with egg wash. Chopped nuts or streusel can be sprinkled on top. Proof, bake and ice as for cinnamon rolls.

Danish Pastries

Danish Pastries are made from a Basic Sweet Dough Formula which has been modified to include a higher percentage of sugar, shortening, eggs, and yeast. The dough is mixed at a much lower temperature (about 72 degrees F.) than for other types of yeast doughs and are generally not mixed long enough to develope the gluten. The dough is taken to the work bench immediately after mixing and is not given any fermentation time. It also has butter or margarine rolled into the dough immediately after completion of mixing. Purpose of rolling the fat into the dough is to produce a tender, flaky pastry. The amount of fat used to roll into the dough varies from 2 to 4 ounces per pound of dough depending upon the richness desired and the desired flakiness. The consistency of the mixed dough and butter or margarine used for rolling should be about the same. This is to prevent the fat from being forced into the dough during the rolling process. The dough containing the fat should be given three-three folds or two-four folds (this will be demonstrated in PART SEVEN). After each roll, the dough is placed in the refrigerator for about 30 minutes to relax to make it easier to accomplish the next roll. After the rolling process is completed the dough may be left in the refrigerator only long enough to be thoroughly chilled before make-up or it may be left in the refrigerator over night provided it is covered with a damp cloth to prevent it from drying out. Any type of filling and topping such as chopped nuts or streusel topping can be used. After proofing and baking, the pastries are iced with a sweet roll icing while still hot to produce a glaze on top.

Sweet Roll and Coffee Cake Fillings, Glaze and Streusel Topping

Almond Filling: 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Almond paste

5

0

sugar, granulated

5

0

Salt

0

1

Margarine

1

0

Eggs, whole

2

0

Cake crumbs

6

0

Water

0

2

Vanilla

0

1

PROCEDURE: Mix thoroughly and refrigerate until needed.

Cinnamon Sugar Mixture: 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Sugar, granulated

5

0

Cinnamon

1

4

Salad oil

0

4

PROCEDURE: Mix together well to eliminate cinnamon dust.

Cottage Cheese Filling: 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Cottage Cheese

5

0

Sugar, granulated

1

4

Margarine

0

12

Flour, cake

0

8

Eggs, whole

1

4

Salt

0

0-1/4th

Lemon extract

0

0-14th

Vanilla

0

0-1/4th

Carmel Glaze: 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Sugar, brown

3

8

Margarine

2

0

Flour, bread

0

4

Honey or syrup

2

0

Salt

0

0-1/2

 Date Nut Filling:

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Dates, pitted

2

8

Sugar, brown

0

8

Water

1

8

Pecans, chopped

1

0

PROCEDURE: Boil sugar and dates about 5 minutes. Add chopped pecans and mix.

Streusel Topping

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Sugar, granulated

2

0

Margarine

2

0

Flour, bread

3

0

Salt

0

0-1/4

Cinnamon

0

0-1/4th

PROCEDURE: Mix sugar, fat, salt and cinnamon thoroughly. Note: A few drops of yellow color and lemon extract can be added at this time. Add flour and mix until a crumb like texture is obtained. Medium to small lumps are desired. Do not over mix.

 This completes PART FIVE Sweet Dough and Danish Pastries. Part Six and Part seven will include photograph of Willie Prejean demonstrating make-up procedures for sweet rolls Danish Pastry Rolls and Coffee Cakes.

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INTRODUCTION:
It’s been said that variety is the spice of life, therefore, variety breads play a major role in the enjoyment of any meal. Following, are examples of formulas for the production of variety breads and a brief description of production procedures. 

Note:
Although Artisian Breads which are mostly made by hand in retail shops, are not covered, they are becoming very popular in some parts of the country. Bakery Equipment Manufacturers are beginning to manufacture the specialized equipment necessary to produce this type of bread in large quantities.

RAISIN BREAD FORMULA IN BAKER’S PERCENTAGES

Ingredients

Percent

Flour, bread

100

Water, variable

65

Yeast, compressed

4

Salt

2

Sugar

6

Shortening

5

Milk, dry nonfat

6

Raisins

60

Cinnamon ground

0.05

Mineral yeast food

0.25

Emulsifier ( bread softener )

0.25

There is a slight difference in the mixing procedure as compared to white bread doughs in that the raisins are not added until the gluten has been fully developed. Once the gluten has been fully developed, the raisins are added, and then the dough is mixed in slow speed in order to keep from crushing the raisins. Mix only long enough to distribute the raisins throughout the dough. Also, the raisins can be soaked for a few minutes and then drained before being added to the dough.

Fermentation, dividing, rounding, intermediate proofing, molding, panning, proofing, baking and cooling are the same as for white bread doughs. Note: The reason for using a larger percentage of water in the formula is because raisins absorb water and if water is not increased slightly, the dough would be too stiff making it difficult to run through the machinery.

RYE BREAD FORMULA IN BAKER’s PERCENTAGES

Ingredients

Percent

Flour, rye

30

Flour, clear grade, wheat

70

Water, variable

58

Yeast, compressed

2

Salt

2

Sugar

2

Shortening

2

Mineral yeast food

0.25

Emulsifier ( bread softener )

0.25

Caraway seeds ( whole or ground )

0.25

Ryeflavor

0.25

 Note:

Water is variable in the formula because rye flour absorbs considerably more water than wheat flour, darker rye flours absorb more water than lighter rye flours, and if making pan type rye bread, more water is used than for hearth type bread.

Mixing the rye dough. Rye dough should be mixed slightly stiffer than white bread. Rye doughs also produce best results if mixed in slow speed to keep from over mixing the dough. Remember, rye flour does not have gluten forming properties, so there is less gluten to develop. Rye doughs produce better quality bread if developed by natural hydration rather than by high speed mixing. The doughs should be mixed slightly cooler than white bread ( 76°F ). Either the straight dough method or the sponge-and-dough method of mixing can be used.

Fermentation of rye doughs. Rye flour is more fermentative than wheat flour because rye flour contains a larger percentage of natural sugars, diastase and protease enzymes and is slightly higher in natural acidity than wheat flour, all of which have an acceleration effect on gas production and gas retention. Therefore, rye doughs require less fermentation time than doughs containing only wheat flour. Using the fermentation ratio as discussed earlier is the best way to determine how long to ferment the dough.

Make up of dough. Dividing, rounding and intermediate proofing are basically the same as for white bread. Rye bread may be baked in regular round top bread pans, on sheet pans or directly on the hearth of the oven. If baked on sheet pans or on the hearth, the dough must be mixed stiffer than if baked in regular bread pans so the loaf will keep its shape without flattening out. Less proof is also required.

Proofing rye bread doughs. Hearth type rye bread is generally proofed on special wooden boards which have had corn meal sprinkled onto them. When the proofing period is completed, the loaves are washed with corn starch wash or egg wash and a sharp object about the size of a pencil is punched about half way through the loaf about two inches apart the full length of the loaf. Another method is to use a very sharp knife and making several diagonal shallow cuts along the top of the loaf. The purpose of punching (docking ) or cutting the loaf before baking is to prevent the loaf from having wild cracks. Special hearth type pans are available to speed up the operation. They are made from a fairly thick metal which looks like a screen. When this type of pan is used, corn meal is not required.

Baking the bread. If low pressure ( moist ) steam is available the steam is injected into the oven just prior to loading the loaves into the oven and left on until the loaves begin to color. The steam is then turned off. Steam produces a shiny glossy crust color and helps to prevent wild breaks in the loaves. Note: Low pressure ( moist ) steam is steam under 15 pounds per square inch. High pressure steam is dry steam and would be of no benefit.

Cooling, slicing and packaging. Baked rye breads are handled the same as other types of breads

FRENCH BREAD FORMULA IN BAKER’s PERCENTAGES 

Ingredients

Percent

Flour, clear, wheat

100

Water, variable

56

Yeast, compressed

2

Salt

2

Sugar

2

Shortening

2

Mineral yeast food

0.25

 French breads and Vienna breads are made from a lean to semi-rich formula. A strong clear grade of wheat flour is recommended, but a good grade of patent flour can be used with good results. The interior of the French bread is more open and the texture usually has holes. Also, the crust is more thoroughly baked than pan bread which accounts in part to its finer taste and flavor.

The dough should be mixed slightly cooler (about 76 degrees F.) and the gluten should be fully developed, but not over mixed. It should also be fully fermented but not over- fermented.

French bread is made up in a variety of shapes. The pointed or baton shapes are the most popular. Also, a small strip or strand of dough is stretched and placed on top of the full length of the loaf. This eliminates having to dock or cut the top of the loaf after proofing. Loaves are also made by braiding three or more pieces of dough together. Proofing and baking are carried out in the same manner as for rye bread, with the exception that poppy seeds or sesame seeds are sprinkled on top of the loaves after they have been washed with cornstarch wash or egg wash. French bread should be thoroughly baked to produce the desirable characteristics of the crust. A plentiful supply of low pressure steam should be used as in rye breads. French bread can also be baked on sheet pans, screens or directly on the hearth.

Just before the French loaves are loaded into the oven they are washed with corn starch wash or egg wash and cut or docked. Sesame seeds or Poppy seeds can be sprinkled on the loaves at this time. Low pressure steam in injected into the oven and left on until the loaves begin to color. This produces a shiny crust color.

SANDWICH (PULLMAN ) BREAD
Sandwich ( Pullman ) bread is made using the standard white, whole wheat or wheat bread formula, and mixed, fermented, made up, intermediate proofed and molded the same. The molded pieces of dough are placed into long rectangular pullman pans having a cover which is placed on top. The covers can be put on as the molded pieces of dough are placed in the pans or they can be put on after proofing and just before the pans are loaded into the oven. The loaves should be given a slightly shorter proof than regular round top bread (about three fourth). This is to allow for the ovenspring which will cause the dough to reach the cover, forming a flat top rather than a round top. Avoid too much underproof, because this will result in the dough not reaching the cover and a rounded loaf rather than a square loaf. Overproofing on the other hand causes the dough to push the cover up slightly and come out of the pan at the edges, resulting in poor symmetry.

The pullman pan is used to bake sandwich bread. The cover is put on just before the loaves are loaded into the oven to form a square loaf.

After the bread is fully baked, unload the oven, remove the cover, manually or mechanically. Dump the bread out of the pan and place the loaf upside down on cooling racks or conveyor belt. Purpose of placing the baked loaf upside down is to allow the loaf to retain its square shape. Cooling, slicing and packaging are handled the same as other types of breads.

POTATO BREAD FORMULA IN BAKER’S PERCENTAGES 

Ingredients

Percent

Flour, bread, wheat

100

Potato Flour

3

Water, variable

65

Yeast, compressed

2

Salt

2

Sugar

6

Shortening

5

Milk, dry nonfat

6

Mineral yeast food

0.25

Mix the dough using the same procedures as for white pan bread. Potato Flour contain approximately 75% carbohydrates occurring in the form of gelatinized starch. This gelatinized starch is readily converted to maltose sugar by the flour enzyme diastase. This is the reason why potatoes speed up the fermentation process. Potatoes also contain growth promoting mineral substances which stimulate yeast development. Emulsifiers ( bread softeners ) are not needed because potatoes function as stale retarding agents which helps to reduce the rate at which the bread crumb becomes firm. Make up of dough etc. are the same as for white bread.

WHOLE WHEAT OR WHEAT BREAD
Percentages of bread ingredients are the same as for white bread with the exception that whole wheat bread contain only whole wheat flour, whereas wheat bread contain both whole wheat and white flour in various amounts. For example, 75% whole wheat flour and 25% white flour or 50% whole wheat flour and 50% white flour. All bread production procedures are the same as white bread. Since whole wheat flour absorbs more water than white flour, an increase in formula water will be necessary.

 Note:
Hard white wheat flour will make excellent quality white whole wheat bread. Usually it will be necessary to add 3 – 4 pounds of vital wheat gluten per 100 pounds of flour. Dough strengtheners such as “calcium steroyl lactylate, or sodium steroyl lactylate” are also permissable in the amount of about 4 ounces per 100 grams of flour. 

Many other varieties of breads can be produced using 7 Grain Cereals, Corn Meal, Cheese, Dehydrated Garlic, Dehydrated Onions, and Nuts in the formula. Also, as mentioned above Artesian Breads are becoming very popular as are Pita Breads/Pocket Breads.

 Note:
In Part Five – Basic Sweet Dough and Danish Pastries, Sweet Roll & amd; Coffee Cake Fillings and Glazes will be covered.

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