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 FRENCH PASTRY is a specialty pastry product that tests the ability of the pastry baker. On the other hand, cream puffs and Eclairs are delicious desserts which are not difficult to make if directions are followed carefully.

FRENCH PASTRYis made from a vert rich dough containing a large amount of butter or maragarine sometimes combined with a special puff pastry shortening. A cream puff is a round hollow shell made from a paste consisting of water, shortening, butter or maragarine, salt, flour and eggs. At the end of the recipes, step by step demonstrations will be given on producing these specialty pastries.

FRENCH PASTRY DOUGH RECIPE:

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Flour, Bread

4

0

salt

0

1

Puff Pastry Shortening

4

0

Water, Ice-cold

2

4

MIXING METHOD ONE: Add all the ingredients of the recipe except the (Puff Pastry Shortening) in the mixing bowl. Mix the dough until the gluten is fully developed using the Dough Hook. Place the mixed dough on work bench which has been dusted with flour. Shape the dough into an oblong shape about 12 inches wide and 20 inches long. Spot the Puff Paste Shortening on two thirds of the dough as is demonstrated in PART SEVEN – DEMONSTRATION DANISH PASTRY.

Fold and roll the dough just as you would a Danish Pastry Dough being careful not to break through the dough by using excessive pressure on the rolling pin. Refrigerate for about 30 minutes between rolls to Let the dough relax. Cover the rolled dough with a damp cloth to keep a crust from forming. Repeat the rolling process 3 times. After the final roll, and after the dough has been refrigerated for an additional 30 minutes or overnight, it is ready to be made up into a variety of French Pastries, some of which are demonstrated below.

MIXING METHOD TWO: Place the flour, the Puff Pastry Shortening and salt into the mixing bowl. Work the fat into the dough either by hand or with the mixing paddle just as you would for mixing a pie dough. Mix only long enough so that the flour is only partially covered with fat leaving lumps of fat about the size of marbles. Add water to the partially coated flour and mix only long enough to form a dough. ( Do not overmix ). Place dough on a flour coated work bench. Place the mixed dough on work bench which has been dusted with flour. Shape the dough into an oblong shape about 12 inches wide and 20 inches long and roll it into an oblong shape about 1/2 inch thick, being careful not to break through the dough by using excessive pressure on the rolling pin. Lap dough to form three folds. Let dough relax for about 30 minutes, covering it with a damp cloth to keep a crust from forming.

Repeat this step three or four times, brushing flour off dough each time, and being careful not to damage the dough with too much pressure on the rolling pin. Refrigerate for about 30 minutes or overnigh. Make-up the various items such as Cream Horns and Patty Shells demonstrated below. Many other varieties such as Palm Leaves can also be made.

NOTE: Cream horns can be filled with a marshmallow type meringue or any type of filling desired. Patty shells can be filled with a Shrimp Newburg type filling, Chicken a-la King or any other type filling.

MAKING CREAM HORNS FROM FRENCH PASTRY

  • ROLL THE FINISHED FRENCH PASTRY DOUGH ABOUT 12 INCHES WIDE AND 1/8TH INCH THICK. CUT INTO STRIPS ABOUT ONE INCH WIDE. • WASH DOUGH STRIPS WITH LIGHT COATING OF WATER OR EGG WASH.
  • ROLL STRIP ONTO METAL OR PAPER CREAM HORNS STARTING AT SMALL END OF HORN. • COMPLETE ROLL BY OVERLAPPING STRIPS WHILE ROLLING ON CREAM HORN. MAKING PATTY SHELLS 
  • CUTTING THE DOUGH WHICH HAS BEEN ROLLED TO AN EVEN THICKNESS OF ABOUT 1/4TH TO 1/2 INCH THICK AND 15 INCHES WIDE WITH A SHARP CUTTER. 
  • USING SMALL SHARP CUTTER, MAKE SHELL BY CUTTING OUT CENTER TO FORM RING.
  • COMBINE CUT PORTIONS ( SCRAP DOUGH ) AND PRESS TOGETHER. ROLL THE SCRAP DOUGH ABOUT 1/8TH INCH THICK. DOCK ROLLED DOUGH FOR SHELL BOTTOM.
  • CUT DOCKED DOUGH WITH SAME CUTTER USED TO CUT RINGS.
  • AFTER TRIMMINGS ARE REMOVED, WASH THE DOCKED BOTTOMS A FEW AT A TIME WITH A LIGHT COATING OFWATER OR EGG WASH SO THE RINGS WILL STICK TO THE BOTTOMS.
  • PLACE RINGS ON BOTTOM PIECES TAKING CARE TO MATCH EDGES EVENLY

1. Baked cream horns
2. Baked patty shells

CREAM PUFF AND ECLAIR RECIPE:

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Water

5

4

Butter or Margarine

2

0

Combine water and fat together and bring to rolling boil making sure the fat has melted completely.

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Flour, Bread

3

0

 

Add flour to boiling mixture stirring constantly until cooked into a thick paste. Remove from heat.

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
eggs, whole

5

4

salt

0

1

Place cooked mixture into mixing bowl and mix a few turns with the mixing paddle to cool the mixture slightly. Add the salt to the eggs. Add eggs and salt mixture slowly while mixing and mix to a smooth batter.

NOTE: The amount of eggs varies so it may be necessary hold back on a small amount of eggs or the eggs may have to be increased slightly to obtain a smooth batter. Drop on lightly greased pans which have been dusted with flour. Bake at 400 degrees F. for about 30 minutes. Reduce heat to 300 degrees F. to dry out the inside of the Puffs and Eclairs to keep them from falling. When Bread Flour is used in the recipe as is the case with this recipe, the top of the baked product will crack somewhat. If a smooth top and a more tender product is desired, then Cake Flour can be used.

CREAM FILLING FOR CREAM PUFFS AND ECLAIRS:

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
water

1

8

sugar

1

8

Bring water and sugar to a boil.

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
water

1

8

sugar

1

8

Suspend starch in water and add to boiling mixture while stirring vigorously with hand whip. Cook until thick and clear. Remove from heat.

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Sugar granulated

0

12

salt

0

1/4th

milk, nonfat dry

0

6-1/2

Butter or margarine

0

4

Add sugar, salt,dry milk and butter or margarine to cooked mixture and stir until dry ingredients are dissolved and butter or margarine is melted.

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Eggs

1

4

 

Beat the eggs slightly with a hand whip. Pour 1/4th of cooked mixture over eggs and stir vigorously. NOTE: Reason for pouring part of the egg over eggs is to prevent the eggs from coagulating too soon which would result in a lumpy mixture.

Ingredients Pounds Ounces
Vanilla

0

1/2

salt

0

1/4th

Add vanilla to cooked mixture and stir. At this point if a shiffon type cream is desired, a small amount of meringue can be folded into the cooked mixture while still hot. Refrigerate until ready to be used.

MAKING CREAM PUFFS AND ECLAIRS:

  • PANNING CREAM PUFF BATTER BY HAND
  • PANNING ECLAIR BATTER USING PASTRY BAG
  •  FILLING CREAM PUFFS AND ECLAIRS WITH MACHINE

 1. FILLED CREAM PUFFS TOPPED WITH CHOCOLATE ICING AND POWDERED SUGAR
2. FILLED ECLAIRS TOPPED WITH CHOCOLATE ICING AND POWDERED SUGAR

 This completes part eight on French Pastries and Cream Puffs-Eclairs. Thanks again to Willie Prejean for proving all the information on this blog.

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BAKING AND BAKING SCIENCE

PART FIVE – Sweet Dough, Danish Pastries, Coffe Cake Filling and Struesel Topping

Introduction:

The basic sweet dough is used to produce a wide range of sweet rolls, danish rolls and coffee cakes. To produce a more tender and flaky danish roll and coffee cake, the recipe is generally modified by adding additional sugar, shorteninig, eggs and yeast — butter or margarine is rolled into the danish dough. Many types of fillings and toppings are used and different flavored icings are applied to the baked pastries.  

Basic Sweet Dough Formula:

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Sugar, granulated

0

11

salt

0

1-3/4th

Mace or Nutmeg

0

0-1/4th

Shortening

0

11

Eggs, whole

0

15

Water *, variable

1

6

Lemon extract

0

0-1/4th

Yellow color

0

few drops

*Temper water so dough will come out of the mixer at 80 degrees F. Mix the above ingredients well. 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Water, 110 degrees F.

0

14

Yeast, dry

0

3-1/4th

 

 

 Add dry yeast to the warm water and mix together well. Let set about 5 minutes. After the water and yeast have set for about 5 minutes, mix them well again and add to the above ingredients. 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Flour, bread

5

0

Milk, dry non fat

0

3

 Add dry milk on top of flour to keep from forming lumps, then add to above and mix using the dough hook until gluten is properly developed. The dough will clean sides of the bowl and should be soft and slightlt sticky. The dough should come out of the mixer at 80 degrees F. and fermented for about 1-1/2 hours before make-up.

Note:
TO COMPLETE THE REMAINDER OF THIS PART, WILLIE PREJEAN WILL DEMONSTRATE HOW TO TELL WHEN THE GLUTEN HAS BEEN FULLY DEVELOPED DURING THE MIXING PHASE; WHEN THE DOUGH IS READY TO BE PUNCHED DURING THE FERMENTATION PHASE; HE WILL ALSO PUNCH AND FOLD THE DOUGH. IN PART SIX HE WILL DEMONSTRATE HOW TO MAKE A VARIETY OF SWEET ROLLS AFTER THE DOUGH HAS BEEN ALLOWED TO RISE AGAIN AFTER THE PUNCH.


Stretching the dough to determine if the gluten has been fully developed

 
Testing to determine if the dough is ready to be punched

 
Dough receeds slightly indicating it is ready to be punched

 
Folding the dough after it has been punched

 MAKE-UP OF SWEET ROLLS

 To make 54 sweet rolls (1 sheet pan) divide the dough into 5 pounds 8 ounce pieces. Form into oblong shape and allow to rest on work bench or in sheet pans which have been dusted with flour for 15 to 20 minutes to relax so the dough will roll out more easily.

With rolling pin, roll dough about 12 inches wide and 5 feet long. Brush sheeted dough with melted butter or margarine leaving about one inch at bottom without fat. Brush egg wash on this area so the dough will seal when rolled up into cylinder. Sprinkle raisins, chopped nuts, etc. on buttered portion.

Next sprinkle a prepared cinnamon sugar. Curl into round cylinder. Cut into cinnamon, butterfly rolls, etc. weighing about 2 ounces. Place made up rolls on greased pan, proof in moist, warm place until double in size. Bake in 350 t0 375 degree F. oven until golden brown. 

Note: To check if thoroughly baked, check bottom of roll. When brown on bottom, the rolls should be baked. Ice with sweet roll icing while still hot to produce a glazed top.

To make coffee cakes, scale dough pieces about 8 ounce or 12 ounce pieces. Shape into oblong loaves. Allow to rest for 15 to 20 minutes. Roll dough with rolling pin about 6 inches wide and 8 inches long. Fill with any filling available such as pie filling, buttercream icing with chopped nuts, cinnamon sugar, and streusel sprinkled on top, raisins, coconut, etc. When using pie filling or jam as the spread, sprinkle cake crumbs or streusel on top to absorb the moisture. 

Curl and shape as as you would when making cinnamon rolls. Various cuts can be made on top or the cylinder can be split in the center and formed into a twist. Also the coffee cake can be shaped in the form of a ring, heart, or fan. The shapes into which they can be made will be limited only by your imagination. Place on greased sheet pan about 4 inches apart to allow for expansion. Wash top of coffee cake with egg wash. Chopped nuts or streusel can be sprinkled on top. Proof, bake and ice as for cinnamon rolls.

Danish Pastries

Danish Pastries are made from a Basic Sweet Dough Formula which has been modified to include a higher percentage of sugar, shortening, eggs, and yeast. The dough is mixed at a much lower temperature (about 72 degrees F.) than for other types of yeast doughs and are generally not mixed long enough to develope the gluten. The dough is taken to the work bench immediately after mixing and is not given any fermentation time. It also has butter or margarine rolled into the dough immediately after completion of mixing. Purpose of rolling the fat into the dough is to produce a tender, flaky pastry. The amount of fat used to roll into the dough varies from 2 to 4 ounces per pound of dough depending upon the richness desired and the desired flakiness. The consistency of the mixed dough and butter or margarine used for rolling should be about the same. This is to prevent the fat from being forced into the dough during the rolling process. The dough containing the fat should be given three-three folds or two-four folds (this will be demonstrated in PART SEVEN). After each roll, the dough is placed in the refrigerator for about 30 minutes to relax to make it easier to accomplish the next roll. After the rolling process is completed the dough may be left in the refrigerator only long enough to be thoroughly chilled before make-up or it may be left in the refrigerator over night provided it is covered with a damp cloth to prevent it from drying out. Any type of filling and topping such as chopped nuts or streusel topping can be used. After proofing and baking, the pastries are iced with a sweet roll icing while still hot to produce a glaze on top.

Sweet Roll and Coffee Cake Fillings, Glaze and Streusel Topping

Almond Filling: 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Almond paste

5

0

sugar, granulated

5

0

Salt

0

1

Margarine

1

0

Eggs, whole

2

0

Cake crumbs

6

0

Water

0

2

Vanilla

0

1

PROCEDURE: Mix thoroughly and refrigerate until needed.

Cinnamon Sugar Mixture: 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Sugar, granulated

5

0

Cinnamon

1

4

Salad oil

0

4

PROCEDURE: Mix together well to eliminate cinnamon dust.

Cottage Cheese Filling: 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Cottage Cheese

5

0

Sugar, granulated

1

4

Margarine

0

12

Flour, cake

0

8

Eggs, whole

1

4

Salt

0

0-1/4th

Lemon extract

0

0-14th

Vanilla

0

0-1/4th

Carmel Glaze: 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Sugar, brown

3

8

Margarine

2

0

Flour, bread

0

4

Honey or syrup

2

0

Salt

0

0-1/2

 Date Nut Filling:

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Dates, pitted

2

8

Sugar, brown

0

8

Water

1

8

Pecans, chopped

1

0

PROCEDURE: Boil sugar and dates about 5 minutes. Add chopped pecans and mix.

Streusel Topping

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Sugar, granulated

2

0

Margarine

2

0

Flour, bread

3

0

Salt

0

0-1/4

Cinnamon

0

0-1/4th

PROCEDURE: Mix sugar, fat, salt and cinnamon thoroughly. Note: A few drops of yellow color and lemon extract can be added at this time. Add flour and mix until a crumb like texture is obtained. Medium to small lumps are desired. Do not over mix.

 This completes PART FIVE Sweet Dough and Danish Pastries. Part Six and Part seven will include photograph of Willie Prejean demonstrating make-up procedures for sweet rolls Danish Pastry Rolls and Coffee Cakes.

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Came across this article written by Devra Gartenstein over at ehow (http://www.ehow.com/how_6223494_run-bakery-business.html) and thought it had some great substance, soooo…if you haven’t read it, this is a nice quick read to get you back on track.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Running a successful bakery business involves developing routines and record-keeping systems that enable you to meet demand while producing only a minimal amount of extra inventory. In addition, a bakery must have a core group of recipes as well as efficient systems for producing and distributing goods. Display is important to the success of a bakery as well, because customers are more likely to buy baked goods if they are presented in an appealing way.

Step 1
Create a product line for your bakery. Your operation should have a primary focus such as breads or cookies, and it should also offer supplemental products that expand your niche and give customers a well-rounded selection. Develop recipes that are adaptable, and use similar enough processes and ingredients to provide some degree of consolidation and efficiency. However your product line should be varied enough for your customers to find it interesting. Offer seasonal menus and customized special-order items, such as birthday cakes.
Step 2
Develop an inventory system for storing and ordering ingredients. This can be a computerized system that integrates the amount of each ingredient that you use in daily production with your records for ordering inventory. Alternately, it can be a set of handwritten records tracking how much of each item you have on hand on a daily or weekly basis, and providing space for order information to supplement supplies on hand. Set up a storage system to keep flours and grains fresh and safe from rodents. Check invoices to stay abreast of price changes, and adjust the prices you charge to your customers accordingly.
Step 3
Set up an attractive display system for your bakery business. Use platters and baskets that show off your products, such as a long, tall basket for baguettes or a round platter for cinnamon buns. Create displays that appear bountiful, but don’t stock them with so much product that the items on the bottom will be crushed. Develop a system for rotating stock in your bakery displays so that you sell off older inventory before it grows stale.
Step 4
Train your bakery staff in baking and customer-service protocols. Develop kitchen routines delegating different baking and cleaning tasks to different positions. Post a cleaning schedule. Provide your service staff with detailed knowledge of your ingredients as well as serving suggestions. Teach your counter staff to pack items so they stay intact and fresh.
 
In summary, this is only touching the surface but the information is good stuff. I would add that while you are running your successful bakery, don’t forget to always present a consistent product and control your ingredients costs. These two factors will put money in your pocket and keep your customers returning.
Cheers, TBN

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