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Visit or website for all types of Festive Cookie Recipes – http://ht.ly/85MyU

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Baking and Baking Science

For this time around, we will include Part Six and Part Seven as a PDF document which you can view or download and save 

PART SIX – WILLIE PREJEAN DEMONSTRATING MAKE – UP OF PASTRIES

Download or view Part Six

PART SEVEN – WILLIE PREJEAN DEMONSTRATING MAKE – UP OF DANISH ROLLS AND COFFEE CAKE

Download or view Part Seven

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Hey folks, give this recipe a try from King Arthur Flour. Best thing is you’ve got a great video to go along with the recipe (ingredients and directions). I’m going to be making them Sunday morning for Mother’s Day. Nothing better that showing up with some warm pastries and fresh coffee…in the good books for another year!

http://www.thebakerynetwork.com/virtual-cookbook/videos/ridiculously-easy-no-knead-sticky-buns

Cheers, Joe Baker

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BAKING AND BAKING SCIENCE

PART FIVE – Sweet Dough, Danish Pastries, Coffe Cake Filling and Struesel Topping

Introduction:

The basic sweet dough is used to produce a wide range of sweet rolls, danish rolls and coffee cakes. To produce a more tender and flaky danish roll and coffee cake, the recipe is generally modified by adding additional sugar, shorteninig, eggs and yeast — butter or margarine is rolled into the danish dough. Many types of fillings and toppings are used and different flavored icings are applied to the baked pastries.  

Basic Sweet Dough Formula:

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Sugar, granulated

0

11

salt

0

1-3/4th

Mace or Nutmeg

0

0-1/4th

Shortening

0

11

Eggs, whole

0

15

Water *, variable

1

6

Lemon extract

0

0-1/4th

Yellow color

0

few drops

*Temper water so dough will come out of the mixer at 80 degrees F. Mix the above ingredients well. 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Water, 110 degrees F.

0

14

Yeast, dry

0

3-1/4th

 

 

 Add dry yeast to the warm water and mix together well. Let set about 5 minutes. After the water and yeast have set for about 5 minutes, mix them well again and add to the above ingredients. 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Flour, bread

5

0

Milk, dry non fat

0

3

 Add dry milk on top of flour to keep from forming lumps, then add to above and mix using the dough hook until gluten is properly developed. The dough will clean sides of the bowl and should be soft and slightlt sticky. The dough should come out of the mixer at 80 degrees F. and fermented for about 1-1/2 hours before make-up.

Note:
TO COMPLETE THE REMAINDER OF THIS PART, WILLIE PREJEAN WILL DEMONSTRATE HOW TO TELL WHEN THE GLUTEN HAS BEEN FULLY DEVELOPED DURING THE MIXING PHASE; WHEN THE DOUGH IS READY TO BE PUNCHED DURING THE FERMENTATION PHASE; HE WILL ALSO PUNCH AND FOLD THE DOUGH. IN PART SIX HE WILL DEMONSTRATE HOW TO MAKE A VARIETY OF SWEET ROLLS AFTER THE DOUGH HAS BEEN ALLOWED TO RISE AGAIN AFTER THE PUNCH.


Stretching the dough to determine if the gluten has been fully developed

 
Testing to determine if the dough is ready to be punched

 
Dough receeds slightly indicating it is ready to be punched

 
Folding the dough after it has been punched

 MAKE-UP OF SWEET ROLLS

 To make 54 sweet rolls (1 sheet pan) divide the dough into 5 pounds 8 ounce pieces. Form into oblong shape and allow to rest on work bench or in sheet pans which have been dusted with flour for 15 to 20 minutes to relax so the dough will roll out more easily.

With rolling pin, roll dough about 12 inches wide and 5 feet long. Brush sheeted dough with melted butter or margarine leaving about one inch at bottom without fat. Brush egg wash on this area so the dough will seal when rolled up into cylinder. Sprinkle raisins, chopped nuts, etc. on buttered portion.

Next sprinkle a prepared cinnamon sugar. Curl into round cylinder. Cut into cinnamon, butterfly rolls, etc. weighing about 2 ounces. Place made up rolls on greased pan, proof in moist, warm place until double in size. Bake in 350 t0 375 degree F. oven until golden brown. 

Note: To check if thoroughly baked, check bottom of roll. When brown on bottom, the rolls should be baked. Ice with sweet roll icing while still hot to produce a glazed top.

To make coffee cakes, scale dough pieces about 8 ounce or 12 ounce pieces. Shape into oblong loaves. Allow to rest for 15 to 20 minutes. Roll dough with rolling pin about 6 inches wide and 8 inches long. Fill with any filling available such as pie filling, buttercream icing with chopped nuts, cinnamon sugar, and streusel sprinkled on top, raisins, coconut, etc. When using pie filling or jam as the spread, sprinkle cake crumbs or streusel on top to absorb the moisture. 

Curl and shape as as you would when making cinnamon rolls. Various cuts can be made on top or the cylinder can be split in the center and formed into a twist. Also the coffee cake can be shaped in the form of a ring, heart, or fan. The shapes into which they can be made will be limited only by your imagination. Place on greased sheet pan about 4 inches apart to allow for expansion. Wash top of coffee cake with egg wash. Chopped nuts or streusel can be sprinkled on top. Proof, bake and ice as for cinnamon rolls.

Danish Pastries

Danish Pastries are made from a Basic Sweet Dough Formula which has been modified to include a higher percentage of sugar, shortening, eggs, and yeast. The dough is mixed at a much lower temperature (about 72 degrees F.) than for other types of yeast doughs and are generally not mixed long enough to develope the gluten. The dough is taken to the work bench immediately after mixing and is not given any fermentation time. It also has butter or margarine rolled into the dough immediately after completion of mixing. Purpose of rolling the fat into the dough is to produce a tender, flaky pastry. The amount of fat used to roll into the dough varies from 2 to 4 ounces per pound of dough depending upon the richness desired and the desired flakiness. The consistency of the mixed dough and butter or margarine used for rolling should be about the same. This is to prevent the fat from being forced into the dough during the rolling process. The dough containing the fat should be given three-three folds or two-four folds (this will be demonstrated in PART SEVEN). After each roll, the dough is placed in the refrigerator for about 30 minutes to relax to make it easier to accomplish the next roll. After the rolling process is completed the dough may be left in the refrigerator only long enough to be thoroughly chilled before make-up or it may be left in the refrigerator over night provided it is covered with a damp cloth to prevent it from drying out. Any type of filling and topping such as chopped nuts or streusel topping can be used. After proofing and baking, the pastries are iced with a sweet roll icing while still hot to produce a glaze on top.

Sweet Roll and Coffee Cake Fillings, Glaze and Streusel Topping

Almond Filling: 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Almond paste

5

0

sugar, granulated

5

0

Salt

0

1

Margarine

1

0

Eggs, whole

2

0

Cake crumbs

6

0

Water

0

2

Vanilla

0

1

PROCEDURE: Mix thoroughly and refrigerate until needed.

Cinnamon Sugar Mixture: 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Sugar, granulated

5

0

Cinnamon

1

4

Salad oil

0

4

PROCEDURE: Mix together well to eliminate cinnamon dust.

Cottage Cheese Filling: 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Cottage Cheese

5

0

Sugar, granulated

1

4

Margarine

0

12

Flour, cake

0

8

Eggs, whole

1

4

Salt

0

0-1/4th

Lemon extract

0

0-14th

Vanilla

0

0-1/4th

Carmel Glaze: 

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Sugar, brown

3

8

Margarine

2

0

Flour, bread

0

4

Honey or syrup

2

0

Salt

0

0-1/2

 Date Nut Filling:

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Dates, pitted

2

8

Sugar, brown

0

8

Water

1

8

Pecans, chopped

1

0

PROCEDURE: Boil sugar and dates about 5 minutes. Add chopped pecans and mix.

Streusel Topping

Ingredients

Pounds

Ounces

Sugar, granulated

2

0

Margarine

2

0

Flour, bread

3

0

Salt

0

0-1/4

Cinnamon

0

0-1/4th

PROCEDURE: Mix sugar, fat, salt and cinnamon thoroughly. Note: A few drops of yellow color and lemon extract can be added at this time. Add flour and mix until a crumb like texture is obtained. Medium to small lumps are desired. Do not over mix.

 This completes PART FIVE Sweet Dough and Danish Pastries. Part Six and Part seven will include photograph of Willie Prejean demonstrating make-up procedures for sweet rolls Danish Pastry Rolls and Coffee Cakes.

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INTRODUCTION:
It’s been said that variety is the spice of life, therefore, variety breads play a major role in the enjoyment of any meal. Following, are examples of formulas for the production of variety breads and a brief description of production procedures. 

Note:
Although Artisian Breads which are mostly made by hand in retail shops, are not covered, they are becoming very popular in some parts of the country. Bakery Equipment Manufacturers are beginning to manufacture the specialized equipment necessary to produce this type of bread in large quantities.

RAISIN BREAD FORMULA IN BAKER’S PERCENTAGES

Ingredients

Percent

Flour, bread

100

Water, variable

65

Yeast, compressed

4

Salt

2

Sugar

6

Shortening

5

Milk, dry nonfat

6

Raisins

60

Cinnamon ground

0.05

Mineral yeast food

0.25

Emulsifier ( bread softener )

0.25

There is a slight difference in the mixing procedure as compared to white bread doughs in that the raisins are not added until the gluten has been fully developed. Once the gluten has been fully developed, the raisins are added, and then the dough is mixed in slow speed in order to keep from crushing the raisins. Mix only long enough to distribute the raisins throughout the dough. Also, the raisins can be soaked for a few minutes and then drained before being added to the dough.

Fermentation, dividing, rounding, intermediate proofing, molding, panning, proofing, baking and cooling are the same as for white bread doughs. Note: The reason for using a larger percentage of water in the formula is because raisins absorb water and if water is not increased slightly, the dough would be too stiff making it difficult to run through the machinery.

RYE BREAD FORMULA IN BAKER’s PERCENTAGES

Ingredients

Percent

Flour, rye

30

Flour, clear grade, wheat

70

Water, variable

58

Yeast, compressed

2

Salt

2

Sugar

2

Shortening

2

Mineral yeast food

0.25

Emulsifier ( bread softener )

0.25

Caraway seeds ( whole or ground )

0.25

Ryeflavor

0.25

 Note:

Water is variable in the formula because rye flour absorbs considerably more water than wheat flour, darker rye flours absorb more water than lighter rye flours, and if making pan type rye bread, more water is used than for hearth type bread.

Mixing the rye dough. Rye dough should be mixed slightly stiffer than white bread. Rye doughs also produce best results if mixed in slow speed to keep from over mixing the dough. Remember, rye flour does not have gluten forming properties, so there is less gluten to develop. Rye doughs produce better quality bread if developed by natural hydration rather than by high speed mixing. The doughs should be mixed slightly cooler than white bread ( 76°F ). Either the straight dough method or the sponge-and-dough method of mixing can be used.

Fermentation of rye doughs. Rye flour is more fermentative than wheat flour because rye flour contains a larger percentage of natural sugars, diastase and protease enzymes and is slightly higher in natural acidity than wheat flour, all of which have an acceleration effect on gas production and gas retention. Therefore, rye doughs require less fermentation time than doughs containing only wheat flour. Using the fermentation ratio as discussed earlier is the best way to determine how long to ferment the dough.

Make up of dough. Dividing, rounding and intermediate proofing are basically the same as for white bread. Rye bread may be baked in regular round top bread pans, on sheet pans or directly on the hearth of the oven. If baked on sheet pans or on the hearth, the dough must be mixed stiffer than if baked in regular bread pans so the loaf will keep its shape without flattening out. Less proof is also required.

Proofing rye bread doughs. Hearth type rye bread is generally proofed on special wooden boards which have had corn meal sprinkled onto them. When the proofing period is completed, the loaves are washed with corn starch wash or egg wash and a sharp object about the size of a pencil is punched about half way through the loaf about two inches apart the full length of the loaf. Another method is to use a very sharp knife and making several diagonal shallow cuts along the top of the loaf. The purpose of punching (docking ) or cutting the loaf before baking is to prevent the loaf from having wild cracks. Special hearth type pans are available to speed up the operation. They are made from a fairly thick metal which looks like a screen. When this type of pan is used, corn meal is not required.

Baking the bread. If low pressure ( moist ) steam is available the steam is injected into the oven just prior to loading the loaves into the oven and left on until the loaves begin to color. The steam is then turned off. Steam produces a shiny glossy crust color and helps to prevent wild breaks in the loaves. Note: Low pressure ( moist ) steam is steam under 15 pounds per square inch. High pressure steam is dry steam and would be of no benefit.

Cooling, slicing and packaging. Baked rye breads are handled the same as other types of breads

FRENCH BREAD FORMULA IN BAKER’s PERCENTAGES 

Ingredients

Percent

Flour, clear, wheat

100

Water, variable

56

Yeast, compressed

2

Salt

2

Sugar

2

Shortening

2

Mineral yeast food

0.25

 French breads and Vienna breads are made from a lean to semi-rich formula. A strong clear grade of wheat flour is recommended, but a good grade of patent flour can be used with good results. The interior of the French bread is more open and the texture usually has holes. Also, the crust is more thoroughly baked than pan bread which accounts in part to its finer taste and flavor.

The dough should be mixed slightly cooler (about 76 degrees F.) and the gluten should be fully developed, but not over mixed. It should also be fully fermented but not over- fermented.

French bread is made up in a variety of shapes. The pointed or baton shapes are the most popular. Also, a small strip or strand of dough is stretched and placed on top of the full length of the loaf. This eliminates having to dock or cut the top of the loaf after proofing. Loaves are also made by braiding three or more pieces of dough together. Proofing and baking are carried out in the same manner as for rye bread, with the exception that poppy seeds or sesame seeds are sprinkled on top of the loaves after they have been washed with cornstarch wash or egg wash. French bread should be thoroughly baked to produce the desirable characteristics of the crust. A plentiful supply of low pressure steam should be used as in rye breads. French bread can also be baked on sheet pans, screens or directly on the hearth.

Just before the French loaves are loaded into the oven they are washed with corn starch wash or egg wash and cut or docked. Sesame seeds or Poppy seeds can be sprinkled on the loaves at this time. Low pressure steam in injected into the oven and left on until the loaves begin to color. This produces a shiny crust color.

SANDWICH (PULLMAN ) BREAD
Sandwich ( Pullman ) bread is made using the standard white, whole wheat or wheat bread formula, and mixed, fermented, made up, intermediate proofed and molded the same. The molded pieces of dough are placed into long rectangular pullman pans having a cover which is placed on top. The covers can be put on as the molded pieces of dough are placed in the pans or they can be put on after proofing and just before the pans are loaded into the oven. The loaves should be given a slightly shorter proof than regular round top bread (about three fourth). This is to allow for the ovenspring which will cause the dough to reach the cover, forming a flat top rather than a round top. Avoid too much underproof, because this will result in the dough not reaching the cover and a rounded loaf rather than a square loaf. Overproofing on the other hand causes the dough to push the cover up slightly and come out of the pan at the edges, resulting in poor symmetry.

The pullman pan is used to bake sandwich bread. The cover is put on just before the loaves are loaded into the oven to form a square loaf.

After the bread is fully baked, unload the oven, remove the cover, manually or mechanically. Dump the bread out of the pan and place the loaf upside down on cooling racks or conveyor belt. Purpose of placing the baked loaf upside down is to allow the loaf to retain its square shape. Cooling, slicing and packaging are handled the same as other types of breads.

POTATO BREAD FORMULA IN BAKER’S PERCENTAGES 

Ingredients

Percent

Flour, bread, wheat

100

Potato Flour

3

Water, variable

65

Yeast, compressed

2

Salt

2

Sugar

6

Shortening

5

Milk, dry nonfat

6

Mineral yeast food

0.25

Mix the dough using the same procedures as for white pan bread. Potato Flour contain approximately 75% carbohydrates occurring in the form of gelatinized starch. This gelatinized starch is readily converted to maltose sugar by the flour enzyme diastase. This is the reason why potatoes speed up the fermentation process. Potatoes also contain growth promoting mineral substances which stimulate yeast development. Emulsifiers ( bread softeners ) are not needed because potatoes function as stale retarding agents which helps to reduce the rate at which the bread crumb becomes firm. Make up of dough etc. are the same as for white bread.

WHOLE WHEAT OR WHEAT BREAD
Percentages of bread ingredients are the same as for white bread with the exception that whole wheat bread contain only whole wheat flour, whereas wheat bread contain both whole wheat and white flour in various amounts. For example, 75% whole wheat flour and 25% white flour or 50% whole wheat flour and 50% white flour. All bread production procedures are the same as white bread. Since whole wheat flour absorbs more water than white flour, an increase in formula water will be necessary.

 Note:
Hard white wheat flour will make excellent quality white whole wheat bread. Usually it will be necessary to add 3 – 4 pounds of vital wheat gluten per 100 pounds of flour. Dough strengtheners such as “calcium steroyl lactylate, or sodium steroyl lactylate” are also permissable in the amount of about 4 ounces per 100 grams of flour. 

Many other varieties of breads can be produced using 7 Grain Cereals, Corn Meal, Cheese, Dehydrated Garlic, Dehydrated Onions, and Nuts in the formula. Also, as mentioned above Artesian Breads are becoming very popular as are Pita Breads/Pocket Breads.

 Note:
In Part Five – Basic Sweet Dough and Danish Pastries, Sweet Roll & amd; Coffee Cake Fillings and Glazes will be covered.

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Here is Part 3 in our continuing Baking and Baking Science education…thanks to Willie Prejean.

INTRODUCTION
There has been a great deal of progress in the methods used to construct bread formulas. Many years ago bread formulas were expressed in Pail, Bucket or Gallon. Today, formulas are expressed in percentages and is referred to as Baker’s Percentage Method…the formula is then converted to pounds and ounces.
When expressing formulas in the percentage system, 100 pounds of flour always represents 100 percent. Percentages of all other ingredients are based on the flour. Although, this may seem confusing, it is a very accurate method which you can see using this method below.
The amount of ingredient necessary to produce a given amount of bread can be calculated right down to pounds and fractions of ounces. The following is an example of a white bread formula using the Baker’s Percentage Method.

Construction of a bread formula to determine pounds and ounces of each ingredient to use, to produce 500 pounds of bread.

Note: Dough losses weight by giving off gasses and moisture and by a small amount of dough that sticks to the mixer. This amount of loss averages about 2 percent. Dough also loses weight during the proofing, baking and cooling. This loss usually averages about 11 percent. These losses must be taken into consideration when constructing a bread formula — the total percentage loss equals13 percent.

The following example explains how to take the above losses into consideration when determining the exact weight of each ingredient to use in the formula to produce a certain amount of bread:

1. Pounds of bread required=500 pounds.
2. 100% = ( Total percentage of ingredients to use to produce500 pounds of bread ).
3. Total loss = 13 %.
a. 100% – 13% = 87% after loss. This is the net percentage of bread ( 500 ) that can be produced from 100% of ingredients.
b. To find how much 100% ingredients equals, it is necessary to divide 500 pounds of baked bread by 87%. This is referred to as the amount of dough required to produce 500 pounds of bread.

Note: Remember that when using percentages, you must move the decimal point two points to the left.

Example:
a. 500 pounds of bread required divided by .87= 574.71 pounds of ingredients to use in the formula.
b. 574.71 pounds of ingredients divided by the total formula percent ( 180% ) = 319.28 pounds of flour to use.

Since all ingredients in the formula are based on the flour, the percent of each ingredient is multiplied times the pounds of flour in the formula.
Converting the straight dough formula to a sponge-and-dough formula.

First the baker must decide what percentage of the flour in the straight dough formula will go into the sponge dough formula. This varies with the strength of the flour and with a flour having a relatively high protein content. Also if the protein is of very good quality, 75% of the formula flour would go into the sponge, and 25% would go into the dough. The amount varies depending on several factors, and through experience, the baker can determine what percentages produce the best results. Other percentage ratios can be used such as 60/40,70/30, etc. The baker’s percentage system of formula computation applies as well to the sponge and dough method as it does to the straight dough method.

Note: At this time it is a good idea to mention why water is always listed as variable in bread formulas. That is because no two flour’s have the same absorption quality — only experience will determine this. This usually changes each time a new shipment of flour is received.

Mixing the sponge.
Prepare the ingredients for the sponge in accordance with information contained in Part Two, Principles of Bread Production.

1. Temper the water.
2. Mix the sponge only about 3 or 4 minutes because full gluten development is not required at this time.
3. Have the sponge come out of the mixer at 76 degrees F. rather than 80 degrees F for the dough. Sponges ferment for several hours, therefore the temperature rise during fermentation will remain in the alcoholic fermentation range.

Note: When the sponge is returned to the mixer after it has gone through the fermentation stage. To be remixed with the dough ingredients, the dough must be mixed until the gluten has been fully developed (as explained in Part Two, Principles of Bread Production). The dough temperature should be about 80 degrees F when it comes out of the mixer.

This completes part three on Bread Formulas and Bread Formula Construction. Today people are demanding a variety in foods, part four- Variety Breads will help you to meet this demand.

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